Transport and Logistics

Some samples below:

Urban Passenger Rail


  • Melbourne – Franchise Agreements for Urban Rail - Second generation of agreements. Dated 2009 (amended 2012). Franchise is for an initial period of eight years, renewable for a further maximum of three years. Franchisee to operate railway passenger services on rail infrastructure and using rolling stock leased to it by the Melbourne Public Transportation Authority (PTV), and PTV and the Franchisee have agreed to the payment of Franchise Payments and other payments on the terms of the Agreement.

  • RailCorp Rolling Stock Public Private Partnership - RailCorp entered into a rolling stock public-private partnership (PPP) with Reliance Rail in December 2006. The Reliance Rail consortium comprises equity partners Downer EDI, AMP Capital Investors, Royal Bank of Scotland Group and International Public Partnerships (formerly Babcock and Brown Partnerships). Reliance Rail is supported by a team of industry specialists, including engineering and service organisations such as Downer EDI Rail and Hitachi. See the Updated summary of contracts and Schedule of Agreements.

  • Metro Tunnel Project – Project Agreement (executed in late 2017) between a private consortium (which includes Lendlease, a major Australian infrastructure and property developer, and John Holland, a leading Australian engineering contractor) and the State of Victoria, for the design, construction and maintenance of 9km of underground railway tunnel running through the Melbourne central business district. The term of the contract is over 30 years (including design and construction), ending in September 2048. It is structured on a BOT model and provides an example where the host government retains greater demand / revenue risk under a “availability payment” model. For the key features of the Project Agreement, read more...

United Kingdom

United States

  • Denver FasTrack. Eagle Project Concession Agreement - Agreement between the Regional Transportation District (RTD) and Denver Transit Partners (DTP). Summary together with attachments and amendments. The RTD FasTracks Program is a multi-billion dollar comprehensive transit expansion plan to build 122 miles of new commuter rail and light rail, 18 miles of bus rapid transit, 21,000 new parking spaces at light rail and bus stations, and enhance bus service for easy, convenient bus/rail connections across the eight-county district. Eagle P3 is a public-private partnership comprised of RTD's East Rail Line, Gold Line, Commuter Rail Maintenance Facility and Northwest Rail Line Westminster segment. The entire Eagle P3 Project is scheduled for completion in 2016. The Eagle P3 is a $2.2 billion capital project comprised of federal funds, RTD sales tax bonds and private equity from the concessionaire team, Denver Transit Partners. Eagle P3 received a $1.03 billion Full Funding Grant Agreement (FFGA) from the Federal Transit Administration on Aug. 31, 2011. The Eagle P3 Project is being delivered and operated under a concession agreement that RTD has entered into with a "concessionaire" that has been selected through a competitive proposal process “Denver Transit Partners (DTP)”. The concession agreement requires DTP to design-build-finance-operate-maintain (DBFOM) the lines under a single contract. RTD will retain all assets while shifting much of the risk of designing and building the project to DTP.



  • Metro Concession Agreement - Concession agreement developed for metro in European city. Drafted by international law firm. Sanitized document together with a summary of the project.



  • Melbourne Metropolitan Tram Franchise Agreement - Agreement of 2009 as amended 2014. Franchisee has agreed to operate tramway passenger services on tram infrastructure and using rolling stock leased to it by Melbourne Public Transportation Authority (PTV), and PTV and the Franchisee have agreed to the payment of Franchise Payments and other payments, on the terms of this Agreement. The contract is for a duration of eight years from 2009 and may be extended for a further 3 years on mutual agreement.

Light Rail


  • GoldLinQ - Gold Coast Rapid Transport Project. PPP project for the construction and operation of a 13 km light rail system. The primary contract is the Gold Coast Rapid Transit Project Deed (Project Deed), dated 5 May 2011, between the State of Queensland (the State) and the GoldLinQ Pty Ltd (GoldLinQ “Operator Franchisee”). Under the Project Deed, the Operator Franchisee has agreed to design, construct, manufacture, install and commission the light rail system for the State during a period of approximately three years. This includes the manufacture and supply of the trams and rail systems, track laying, station and structures, and the assembly of the overhead power supply. The operator is paid construction payments against the completion of construction milestones. The following operations and maintenance phase is for 15 years, which includes running tram services to the timetable, cleanliness and maintenance of the trams, and maintenance of the system infrastructure in return for monthly service payments.

  • North West Rail Linkprincipal project deed (executed in late 2014) between Transport for NSW (a government agency responsible for regulating and managing Sydney’s transportation networks) and a private consortium (which includes the MTR Corporation, Leighton, Plenary Group and Marubeni) for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of a new rapid transit railway line running through Sydney’s north-western suburbs. The agreement runs for a term of 15 years from the target date for completion (in 2019) and is structured on a BOT model. The project usefully illustrates how the private sector can bring in innovative financing structures (the securitized license model) to fund the development of important public infrastructure. It is also a useful example of how larger infrastructure projects may be partitioned between severally different private participants, with the host government playing the central coordination role. For the key features of the agreement, read more...


  • Canada Line Rapid Transit Airport Link (TransLink) - The Canada Line project is the construction and operation of a rapid transport link from Richmond City Center to Vancouver Airport in Ottowa, Canada. The Government of Canada, the Province of British Columbia, Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority (TransLink), the Vancouver Airport Authority (VAA) and the City of Vancouver are funding the Canada Line, which is supported by the City of Richmond. The project also involves a private sector partner, InTransitBC, who was selected through a competitive bidding process and there is a link to the concession agreement. The total projected cost of the project was Canadian $1.9 billion (2003). InTransitBC commits to design, build, partially finance, maintain and operate the Canada Line. InTransitBC is to assume most construction and operations risks.

Bus Rapid Transit Systems

A cost-effective alternative to urban rail investments are bus-rapid transit (BRT) systems. A BRT system is a bus-based urban passenger transport system that enables fast, comfortable and high-quality passenger transit. Typical features are the use of dedicated bus lanes and traffic signal priority, technology of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and rapid and convenient fare collection. In a PPP model the cities build and maintain the infrastructure including stations and a fare collection system, while private operators own and manage the buses, hire staff and provide services on a long-term contract. Existing bus and taxi operators can be integrated into the BRT system and enter into long-term contracts with the relevant municipality.


  • Bogotá - TransMilenio - The TransMilenio Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system opened to the public in December 2000 and replaced a system of many small competing enterprises. It is considered as a model case for a mass urban transit system and was replicated by various cities. The TransMilenio operates like a rail-based system by providing dedicated lanes for the exclusive use of the system’s buses, with boarding stations along the length of the lanes. It is a registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The sample contracts below relate to Phase I of the TransMilenio system. The concession contract related to Phase II of the project is part of the additional materials provided with the Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide (2017).

  • Contrato de Concesión (Concession Contract) document in Spanish with annotations in Spanish and English.

  • Contrato de Operación (Operation Contract) document in Spanish with annotations in Spanish and in English


Light Rail

  • Private Sector Participation in Light Rail - Light Metro Transit Initiatives by Cledan Mandri-Perrott (with Iain Menzies), Public-Private Advisory Facility (PPIAF) 2010 – Toolkit on PPP arrangements for the establishment of effective light-rail metro transit (LRMT) systems. Presents options and discusses practical issues related to preparing and implementing new LRMT PPP schemes. The toolkit is intended as a practical guide to developing LRMT PPPs in both developed and developing countries. It aims to help government and public authorities to make informed decisions, adapted to local policy and objectives.

Bus Rapid Transit

  • Urban Bus Toolkit, World Bank and Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) 2011 - This toolkit is designed to help government officials and policy makers evaluate existing and alternative urban bus systems in developing and transitional countries. It offers practical advice to enact fundamental system reforms (available in English, French and Chinese).

  • Toolkit for Public-Private Partnerships in Urban Transport - Maharashtra, India, Asian Development Bank (ADB) 2011 - This toolkit was prepared to assist public entities in the state of Maharashtra in India in developing public-private partnership (PPP) urban bus transport projects. It includes case studies and detailed term sheets for the different PPP options that aim to facilitate the drafting of contracts. Terms sheets are provided for (a) cost-plus contracts and net-cost contracts (typically lease contracts) where the private sector owns, operates and maintains the buses while the public authority collects the revenue, (b) licensing contracts (typically operation & maintenance contracts) where the buses are owned by the public authority and the private party operates and maintains the buses and collect the revenue, and (c) a bus depot contract (design-build-operate contract) as well as (d) a monorail operation and maintenance contract.

  • Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Toolkit for Feasibility Studies - This Toolkit is Module 2 of the Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development prepared by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Urban Development of India in 2008. The documents in this toolkit are designed to help decision makers and practitioners in states and municipal governments who are concerned with urban transport development in medium-sized cities in India.

Fare Collection and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

  • World Bank Toolkit for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for Urban Passenger Transport - Online tool providing guidance in the planning, design, implementation and evaluation of an ITS program. The online resource includes sections on fare collection and case studies as well as a downloadable Handbook and Companion Guide.

  • European ITS Toolkit - Decision-support toolkit for Intelligent Transport Solutions (ITS) - The toolkit was developed by the European project 2DECIDE. It covers ITS solutions for road and public transport in Europe. The toolkit is available to the public for free upon registration. It is available in English, French, Spanish and other European languages.

  • A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection, Transport Research Board (TRB) of the United States, Transit Cooperative Research Program (TRCP) Report 80, 2002. The report addresses the full range of issues and parameters - including policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues - that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection systems. In 2012, TRB released TCRP Synthesis 96: Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification, as an update to TCRP Report 80.

Further Reading and Resources


This is an example of a Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) agreement for a car park at a public hospital in Australia - Australia hospital car park PPP agreement. The project summery provides an overview of the commercial and contractual arrangements.


  • Thimphu City
    • Development and management of an integrated parking system including two new multi-level car parks with at least 550 parking spaces as well as the upgrading and management of about 1,000 off-street and on-street surface parking in Thimpu City on the basis of a design, build, finance, operate and transfer concession (DBFOT).



  • Bogota
    • Concession for the Maintenance, Administration and Operation of the Public Parking Facilities owned by the Urban Development Institute (a municipal public entity for the City of Bogota) (Spanish) (Concesión para el mantenimiento, la administración y la operación de los parqueaderos públicos habilitados por el IDU, Bogotá - Colombia) (Español)
      • A concession agreement between the City of Bogota’s Urban Development Institute and Union Temporal City Parking, a private entity. This is a two-year agreement, renewable by mutual accord. The Contract does not commit the public sector to minimum revenue payments. It contemplates fixed and variable payments from the private to the public entity, reviewed annually to keep with inflation. Maximum tariffs are set by decree. There are minimum service requirements and duties outlined in the contract and its bases; however, the contract is not a performance based or results based agreement. Penalties for non-performance. The contract provides for local arbitration under Colombian law for the resolution of disputes. Contract date: Sept. 2015.
      • Contrato de concesión entre el Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de la ciudad de Bogotá y la Unión Temporal City Parking (entidad privada). Este es un contrato de 2 años de duración, renovables por mutuo acuerdo. El contrato no compromete a la entidad pública a un pago mínimo de ganancias. El contrato contempla pagos variables y fijos de parte de la Unión Temporal al Instituto, los cuales serán revisados anualmente para ajustarlos a la inflación. Tarifas máximas son establecidas por decreto. Hay un mínimo de requerimientos de servicio y de deberes establecidos en el contrato y en las bases del mismo; sin embargo, este no es un contrato basado en obligaciones de resultado. El texto incluye también multas por no cumplimiento de obligaciones. El contrato estipula el arbitramento nacional bajo la ley colombiana para la resolución de controversias. El contrato fue celebrado en Septiembre de 2015.





  • Miraflores
    • Concession for a 573 Underground Parking Lot in Miraflores (Spanish)
      • The Municipality of Miraflores established a public-private partnership with a private consortium for the construction of a 573 underground parking lot, with a projected private investment of approximately $9 million US Dollars, to be completed in a year. Conflict resolution will be done through a three-person arbitral panel in Lima, Peru. The public sector invested in the studies and offers the real estate.

      • El Municipio de Miraflores estableció una alianza público-privada con un consorcio privado para la construcción de un estacionamiento con 573 cupos, con una inversión privada proyectada en aproximadamente $9 millones de dólares, y para ser completada en un año. La resolución de conflictos será hecha a través de un tribunal de arbitramento en Lima, Perú. El sector público invirtió en los estudios del proyectó y dio el bien inmueble.

  • San Borja
    • Public-private partnership for the Construction and Operation of 350 Underground Parking Lot in San Borja, Peru (Spanish) (Proyecto EcoPark: 350 estacionamientos subterráneos en San Borja) (Español)
      • Public-private partnership for the design, financing, construction, operation, maintenance and transfer of 14,320 square meters of space, including an underground parking lot and commercial space at ground level. The period of the contract is 32 years from the date of signing. The municipality will receive 8% of income from the parking operations and rental income from commercial space. The private party is free to set prices on both the parking and rental operations. The contract provides for rebalancing of economic and financial terms due to changes in law. Conflict resolution will be done through direct dealings of the parties, and if unsuccessful, through arbitration in Lima, Peru. This agreement is approved for signature but unsigned as for Sept 2016.
      • Alianza público-privada para el diseño, financiación, construcción, operación, mantenimiento y reversión de 14,320 de metros cuadrados de espacio, incluyendo un estacionamiento subterráneo y un espacio comercial al nivel de la tierra. El término del contrato es de 32 años desde la firma del contrato. La municipalidad recibirá el 8% de los ingresos de las operaciones del estacionamiento y del arriendo del espacio comercial. La parte privada es libre de establecer los precios tanto de los estacionamientos como de las operaciones de arriendo. El contrato estipula cláusulas para su rebalance económico y financiero cuando este se ha visto afectado por cambios en la ley. La resolución de controversias será hecha a través de arreglos directos entre las parte, y de no llegarse a ningún resultado, se dirimirá a través de arbitramento en Lima, Perú. Este contrato fue aprobado para su firma, pero a Septiembre de 2016 no ha sido firmado.

United States

  • Chicago

    • Downtown Public Parking System Concession and Lease Agreement - Agreement of 2006 between the City of Chicago (City) and Chicago Loop Parking, LLC (Concessionaire) [See Exibit B of the Ordinance]
      • Long-term contract (99 years) (sec. 2.1); City grants concession and lease against upfront payment of $ 563,000,000 (sec. 2.1); lease of four downtown underground parking garages (sec. 1.1 Parking Garage System); Concessionaire to operate and maintain the parking garages at established standards and to upgrade all garages during the course of the lease as specified in the agreement (sec. 2.1, 4.1 ,Schedule 3); comply with the City’s living wages requirements (sec 11.6), residential preference and minority-owned and women-owned enterprises requirements (sec. 11.8). Concessionaire is reimbursed through parking fees and has the unlimited authority to set parking rates (sec.7.1). Concessionaire has the right to generate additional revenues within the parking facilities (sec. 7.3).
    • Parking Meter Lease (Leasing of existing parking infrastructure) - Chicago Metered Parking System Concession of 2008 and Amended and Restated Chicago Metered Parking System Concession Agreement of 5 June 2013 between the City of Chicago and the Chicago Parking Meters LLC.
      • 75-year lease (sec 2.1); Concession is granted against upfront payment of $1,156,500,000 (sec 2.1). Concessionaire to operate, maintain and improve over 36,000 on-street parking meters in the city (sec 2.1); Concessionaire has the right to collect and retain metered parking revenues and is compensated for the operation of metered parking spaces it operates and maintains on behalf of the City (sec 2.1). City retains responsibility for parking enforcement (sec 7.7); however, Concessionaire can issue parking tickets at its own expense to assist the City in ticketing (sec. 3.2 (e)). Parking rates will be allowed to rise each year for the first five years of the contract (Schedule 9). Any subsequent rate increases greater than 0.25 % of the fee that was in effect after 31 December 2013 will be subject to City Council approval (Schedule 9 and sec 1.1). All increases would be capped to increases in the consumer price index. [Concession is based on home-rule authority. There is no enabling legislation from the State of Illinois.]
  • Ohio

For an overview of parking PPPs in the United States see PPPs and Parking, Allen & Overy 2009.

Bus Shelters


Under the PPP model in India, the concessionaire builds and maintains bus shelters and enjoys the rights to collect revenue from displaying advertisements at earmarked locations on bus shelters, and in turn pays a prescribed concession fee to the municipality.

United States

  • Chicago - Coordinated Street Furniture Program Agreement between the City of Chicago (City) and JCDecaux Chicago, LLC (Contractor)
    • One of the largest street furniture contracts; original term was 10 years (was extended for another 5 years in 2012). Contractor is responsible for the design, fabrication, installation, maintenance, operation, removal and dismantlement of various pieces of street furniture, including 2,175 bus shelters as well as bus supervisor shelters, newsstands, information kiosks and other street furniture structures at no cost for the City. City allows the Contractor to place advertising on certain types and pieces of street furniture in accordance with an ordinance relating to street furniture of June 9, 1999 as a revenue generating means; Contractor pays fees to the City for the privilege of selling and maintaining advertisements pursuant to the coordinated Street Furniture program described in the Agreement. The Contractor’s obligation to pay fees is independent of its revenues and all other obligations under the contract. The contract contains a Minority and Women’s Business Enterprises Commitment.

Bus Terminals and Stations


  • Bus Terminal and Municipal Market of Danli, Honduras
    • Public-private partnership for the design, financing and construction of the updates to the Danli Bus Terminal and Municipal Market space, including 600 commercial market stalls and 20 bus terminals. The market stalls will be transferred to private party for the construction of the upgrades and upon completion of the works, the private company will then sell to small and medium enterprises who will own and profit from the commercial space and bus terminal stalls at a price preset by the municipality. The private party may also rent to SMEs who are not able to purchase the real estate. The contract foresees a ten-month construction phase, with a contract period of a total of 14 months. The agreement includes guarantees for the completion of the contract and for the quality of construction, in accordance with the technical specifications of the project. The private entity pays the PPP Unit a set fee for the structuring and preparation of the project. The contract includes a formula for rebalancing financial and economic equilibrium due exclusively to a change in law of public-private partnerships. Other interesting features include smart building, energy savings, ecological handling of solid waste, a system of fire risk management and special design for accessibility for persons with disabilities.
    • Alianza público-privada para el diseño, financiamiento y construcción de la renovación de la Terminal de buses y mercado municipal de Danlí, el cual incluye 600 locales comerciales y 20 terminales de bus. Los locales comerciales serán enajenados a la parte privada para la construcción de las renovaciones, y una vez éstas sean realizadas, la parte privada las venderá a pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYMES) que las poseerán y se beneficiarán del espacio comercial y las terminales bus, a un precio prestablecido por la municipalidad. La parte privada también podrá arrendar los bienes inmuebles a PYMES que no los puedan comprar. El contrato prevé una fase de construcción de 10 meses, completando un periodo contractual total de 14 meses. El contrato incluye garantías de cumplimiento y de calidad de la construcción, de acuerdo a las especificaciones técnicas del proyecto. La parte privada paga a la unidad de alianzas público-privadas una tarifa por la estructuración y preparación del proyecto. El contrato contiene una fórmula para reestablecer el equilibrio económico y financiero debido, únicamente, al cambio de ley en alianzas público-privadas. Otras características interesantes incluyen la construcción inteligente, ahorro de energía, manejo ecológico de desechos sólidos, un sistema para el manejo de riesgo de fuego, y un diseño especial para el acceso a personas con discapacidades.


  • Uttar Pradesh, LucknowDevelopment of Alambagh Bus Terminal in Lucknow on a Design Build Finance Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis - Draft Concession Agreement between the Uttar Pradesh State Road Transportation Corporation (UPSRTC) and the Concessionaire. The Concessionaire is granted the exclusive right, license and authority to construct, operate and maintain the Bus Terminal and Commercial Complex for 32 years (Article 3.1.1) against an Upfront Concession Fee (Article 26.1 and 26.2) as well as an Annual Concession Fee (Article 26.3). The revenue to be earned by the Concessionaire includes mainly a User Fee charged to both public and private sector buses (Article 3.1.2 (d) and 27) the right to exploit the Commercial Complex for economic purposes including the right to sub-license (Article 3.1.1) as well as potential parking fees and advertising revenues.


  • Toolkit for Public-Private Partnerships in Urban Transport - Maharashtra, India, Asian Development Bank (ADB) 2011 - This toolkit was prepared to assist public entities in the state of Maharashtra in India in developing public-private partnership (PPP) urban bus transport projects. It includes case studies and detailed term sheets for the different PPP options that aim to facilitate the drafting of contracts including a term sheet for a bus depot contract (design-build-operate contract).
  • PPP Toolkit for Improving PPP Decision-Making Process : Online resource published by the Government of India (Ministry of Finance) that has been designed to help improve decision-making for infrastructure PPPs in India and to improve the quality of the PPPs that are developed. The toolkit covers five infrastructure sectors (state highways, water and sanitation, ports, solid waste management, urban transport (bus rapid transport systems). It includes a case study of the Amritsar Inter-city Bus Terminal, Punjab, DBFOT basis.

Download Page as PDF

Updated: June 15, 2021