Standardized Agreements, Bidding Documents and Guidance Manuals

Standardized PPP Agreements


There has been a long tradition of the use of standardized agreements for the procurement of goods and services for traditional public works projects and many international financial institutions including the World Bank require the use of standard bidding documents for the projects that they fund. The use of standardized contracts for complex public-private partnership (PPP) transactions is less common and to date international financial institutions have not produced standardized agreements for PPP transactions.


On the national level many countries have developed model bidding documents, model contracts or key contract clauses, along with guidance manuals. This includes a number of jurisdictions with extensive PPP programs such as the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. Standardized agreements are also increasingly used for specific sectors to reduce the costs for each single contract. Other countries incorporate some standardized elements in overall legislation to govern all PPP contracts.

Set out below are links to examples of standardized PPP agreements, PPP contract clauses, bidding documents and guidance manuals that were developed on the national and international level:

National Standardization Initiatives

Standardized Bidding Documents and Guidelines

Standardized PPP Contracts and Contract Clauses

What is a PPP Contract?

The term 'PPP contract' refers to the contractual documents that govern the relationship between the public and private parties in a PPP transaction. These documents set out the rights and obligations of the parties, deal with the allocation of risk, and mechanisms for dealing with change. In practice, the 'PPP contract' can encompass several documents and agreements. For details see Box 3.9: "What is the PPP Contract" (p. 155) of the PPP Reference Guide.

Examples of Standardized PPP Contracts and Contract Clauses




New Zealand

South Africa


United Kingdom

Sector Specific Standardized PPP Agreements and Contract Clauses


The Planning Commission of the Government of India provides overviews of model concession agreements for PPPs for a range of transport-related projects.

South Korea

United Kingdom

United States

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International Standardization Initiatives

Revised Report on Recommended PPP Contractual Provisions

Revised Report on Recommended PPP Contractual Provisions, prepared by Gide Loyrette Nouel at the request of the World Bank, July 2015.

Standardized Documentation for the Public Procurement of Goods and Services

Many international finance institutions including the World Bank have standardized documentation for the public procurement of goods and services. For details visit Procurement Processes and Bidding Documents.

Guidelines for PPP Laws and Concession Laws

Some international development organizations have also developed guidelines for PPP laws and concession laws that contain details with regard to the content of the contractual arrangements. For more information visit PPP Laws/Concession Laws.

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Further Reading and Resources

Video: Should Standardized Agreements Be Used in PPP Contracts - A Debate, Law, Justice and Development Week 2014.

Public-Private Partnership Reference Guide, Version: 2.0Asian Development Bank (ADB), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank Group, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), second edition, July 2014, Table 3.1 "Examples of Standardized PPP Contracts and Contract Clauses", p. 158.

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The inclusion of or reference to any materials on this website does not mean that they are in any way approved, endorsed or recommended by the World Bank, the PPPLRC or by the donors who support the website. The PPPLRC accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the materials on this website.

The materials are:

  • not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date;
  • sometimes linked to external sites over which the PPPLRC has no control and for which the PPPLRC assumes no responsibility;
  • reference materials for information ONLY. They should not be relied on as a substitute for specific legal advice (if you need specific legal advice, you should always consult a suitably qualified professional).


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Last Updated : Fri,2018-04-27

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