Water and sanitation projects that take gender differences into account can play a significant role in improving the health, education, social, economic, and overall wellbeing of women and girls and their communities. In many cultures women and girls bear, for example, the primary responsibility for collecting water for food preparation, drinking, bathing, washing and are the main caregivers for children, sick and elderly family members. Improved access to clean water and sanitation facilities located at a convenient distance from home can play an important role for the quality of life and safety of women and children and other vulnerable community members. Gender-responsive water and sanitation projects can also promote economic empowerment since they allow in particular women and girls to use time saved for more productive activities that can lead to increased financial independence.
Gender Tools for Infrastructure Projects
A number of guidelines, practical tools, policies, and manuals have been developed by international organizations, national governments, and non-government organizations to facilitate the inclusion of gender in infrastructure projects. Most of the materials were developed for traditionally procured projects but are also applicable to public-private partnership (PPP) projects. Some more recent publications, guidance materials, and policies focus specifically on PPPs and gender inclusion. Read more.
Gender-Responsive PPP Legal Framework
The PPP legal framework together with the PPP contract provides several entry points where gender issues can be addressed in a PPP project. Read more.
Sector-Specific Gender Tools
The extent to and way in which gender could be mainstreamed into the design and implementation of an infrastructure project depend at least to some degree on the specific infrastructure sector. Listed below are guidance materials, toolkits and strategy papers that were developed by international organizations, national governments and non-government organizations to mainstream gender into water and sanitation projects:
Making Water Supply and Sanitation Work for Women and Men: Tools for Task Teams, World Bank December 2010 - The primary objective of this publication is to provide brief, relevant, and practical tools for World Bank task teams and their country counterparts to facilitate their work in addressing gender and other related social issues in water supply and sanitation (WSS) policies and projects. The term “tool” was selected to convey the notion that these materials are nuts and bolts resources to be used when needed, and to emphasize that they are not requirements or directives.
- Water and Sanitation Sub-Sector Gender Strategy (2010 – 2015), Government of Uganda, Ministry of Water and Environment. The revised water and sanitation sub-sector gender strategy of Uganda provides guidelines that aim to ensure that appropriate planning and implementation of gender mainstreaming programs, projects and activities at national and local government levels are undertaken in an integrated, consistent and sustainable manner. The goal is to help empower women, men and vulnerable groups by enhancing equity in access and control of resources in the water and sanitation sector, contributing to poverty reduction. The gender strategy encourages the private sector to promote gender equality. It states that the procurement unit will ensure that private sector firms provide gender expertise, by specifying gender in terms of reference (TORs) for contractors for the design, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of development projects and for sector reviews/studies.
- Water Utility Gender Mainstreaming Toolkit – Draft for Round Table Discussion for Stockholm World Water Week, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), World Bank, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in Kenya, Gender and Water Alliance, August 2011. The final version of the toolkit will be published on this website. It is at an advanced stage and has been endorsed by stakeholders from the respective institutions but its final release is pending further consultation.
- Gender Impacts of GPOBA Pilot Projects, Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) June 2011 - This note presents a summary of the expected gender impacts of output-based aid (OBA) projects by sector (water and sanitation, energy, health, information and communication technology (ICT), an overview of how gender impacts are estimated in the ongoing impact evaluations, and a list of the gender outcomes and impacts that are explicitly acknowledged in other OBA pilot projects.
- Checklist for Gender Mainstreaming in the Water and Sanitation Sector, The African Development Bank (AfDB), September 2009 - This checklist is intended to provide a tool for effective gender mainstreaming for drinking water supply and sanitation programs and projects, with a view to: (i) guiding project managers and implementation teams in identifying, preparing, appraising, implementing, monitoring and evaluating gender-sensitive programs and projects; and (ii) supporting member countries in analyzing and implementing the activities of programs and projects financed by the African Development Bank.
- Gender and Water - Securing Water for Improved Rural Livelihoods: The Multiple-Uses System Approach, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 2007 - This review examines the impact of water-related projects on women, women’s role in managing water resources and the constraints women face in gaining access to water. It presents lessons learned in promoting women’s participation in decision-making for water management using experiences from several IFAD-supported water programs and projects. It highlights the innovative activities and catalysts that have helped to address gender issues in water programs and projects. It also offers recommendations on how to improve women’s access to water resources through equitable development and gender mainstreaming.
- Gender Action Plans (GAPs) in ADB Projects, online resource provided by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Project Documents Water.
- Unicef - Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools materials with a strong gender equity lens.
- Wash Post-2015 - Proposed Indicators for Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), World Health Organization (WHO) and Unicef Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) - Under the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework, the international community is responsible for increasing access to water and sanitation “paying special attention to the needs of women and girls”, and to as far as possible, verify whether there is a “progressive reduction of inequality” (including gender-based inequities). The framework that the JMP will use to monitor progress globally for the SDGs on this is already largely developed, and can help inform water and sanitation project design and monitoring for tracking and verifying progress. This briefing note summarizes proposed indicators for monitoring WASH elements of SDG targets and reflects extensive technical consultation with over 100 experts from over 60 organizations.
Sector-Specific Case Studies and Project Documents
- Lao PDR - Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric power project: The project is governed by a concession agreement that sets out, among other things, social safeguards to mitigate the potential negative social impacts of the project including gender-specific actions to guarantee increased gender equity and expanded opportunities for women and girls, e.g. land titles are issued jointly to husband and wife (Concession Agreement Schedule 4, Part 1, Social and Resettlement Component ).
- PPP in Watershed Management - Does Watershed Development Implemented through Public Private Partnership Empower Women? A Case Review from Rajasthan, Western India, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2013 (fee for purchase) - This paper critically examines the impact of the ‘Guidelines for Hariyali’ – a rural watershed development policy launched in Rajasthan, Western India which has been implemented through a public-private partnership (PPP) for local communities.
- Public-Private Partnerships for Inclusive Rural Water Supply, Lessons from the Volcanic Region of Rwanda, published by capacity.org 13 August 2013 - Existing community managed systems in Rwanda suffered from a lack of accountability as well as low technical and administrative skills. This contributed to poor cost recovery and hampered the rehabilitation of water supply infrastructures, leading to many dysfunctional water points. SNV Netherlands Development Organisation facilitated the establishment of public–private partnerships between two public water utilities, the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and Aquavirunga, a private company that manages three water schemes. A crucial element of SNV's support was contributing to the capacity development of the local actors involved to enable them participate effectively in the partnerships.
- Water, Gender and Citizenship - Involving men and women in the management of water and sanitation services, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank, 2007 - This document is based on the experience of the Small Town Pilot Project in Peru (STPP) in promoting inclusive citizen participation, involving both men and women, in decisions on the management of water and sanitation services in localities having between 2,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. The new model proposes an alliance between the municipality, a private operator and an overseeing neighborhood community board. A gender component assessed and deployed appropriate communication channels between males, females, the operator and the municipality. It also established a quota of 50% men and 50% women on the neighborhood community boards, institutionalized by a municipal order, and facilitated tariff setting through separate male and female consultations, arriving at a social agreement with the municipality and reconciling differing priorities. The project demonstrates how investing in communication and participatory approaches can facilitate gender mainstreaming and improve service delivery.
- Water, Sanitation and Gender, Gender and Development Briefing Notes, Gender and Development Group, The World Bank, March 2007 - The publication explores why gender issues are important in the water and sanitation sector, how the World Bank is integrating gender in water supply and sanitation (WSS) activities and gives three examples of innovative approaches to integrate gender. One example shows how the private sector engaged women to make bricks for latrines in South Africa.
- Social Republic of Vietnam - Project Appraisal Document (PAD), Red River Delta Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, Social Republic of Vietnam, 2005 - This project appraisal document provides for partnership and coordination between the various government agencies that are involved on the provincial and local level and the Women's Unions. One of its implementation covenants refers to the obligation of the Provincial People Committees to enter into arrangements with the Women’s Unions to establish and operate Household Water and Sanitation Revolving Funds at the provincial level.
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