- World Bank Paper: Electrification and Regulation - Principles and a Model Law (pdf)
- World Bank/ PPIAF: Handbook For Evaluating Infrastructure Regulatory Systems (pdf)
Materials discussing Power Purchase Agreements ("PPA"s):
- An Analysis of Independent Power Projects in Africa: Understanding Development and Investment Outcomes
- SARI: Final Report on Wholesale Electricity Prices in South Asia 2003 (pdf)
- NERC: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking PPA for Captive Customers
I. Sample Laws
Legislação Básica Do Setor Elétrico Brasileiro (pdf) (Basic Law of Brazilian Energy Sector) - This guide reviews relevant Energy Legislation in Brazil. It is a recent comprehensive document published by Brazil's National Energy Agency "Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica – ANEEL" Published June 2010, in Portuguese.
Electricity Law (EN and Arabic) - This legislation is designed to foster the development of independent power producer IPP projects in Jordan, with a view to the eventual establishment of a competitive power market, subject to regulation by an independent Electricity Sector Regulatory Commission. This legislation was issued by the government in 2002 as a "Temporary Law", pending approval by the Jordanian Parliament. This approval has not yet been given, although the Parliament did debate the law in March 2008, before sending it to the Parliament's Energy Committee for further study. However, notwithstanding this 'temporary' status, the law has been in full legal force since 2003, and it governs the operation of the power generation and distribution companies in Jordan, as well as the Jordanian Electricity Regulatory Commission (the Jordanian ERC Web site includes licences and performance standards in English and in Arabic).
Kenya Energy Act 2006 - This law converts an advisory regulator, the Energy Regulatory Board, into a decison making regulator, the Energy Regulatory Commission. The law also gives the new commission explicit authority over imports and exports of electricity. It is important that it be defined more clearly because many new power projects envisioned for Africa will involve major imports and exports of power and the nature of the regulatory review can affect the success or failure of these projects. The act and regulations can be found on the Kenya Energy Regulation Commission (ERC) Web site.
The existing law in Mozambique requires that the regulator be an advisory regulator rather than a regulator with final decision making authority. In this directive, the Minister has decided to create a "strong" advisory regulator. The directive emphasizes the need for transparency and public hearings by the advisory regulator. Another unusual feature is that the Minister has directed that the regulator be responsible for monitoring the performance contract that was established between the government and EdM, the state owned electricity enterprise. This may be the first time that an African regulator has been given this responsibility.
Government Electricity Act 2000 and Namibia Electricity Act 2007 (PDF) - to establish the Electricity Control Board and provide for its powers and functions; to provide for the requirements and conditions for obtaining licences for the provision of electricity; to provide for the powers and obligations of licensees; and to provide for incidental matters. The Web site of the Electricity Control Board has links ot the laws and regulations and the licensing arrangements, including application forms for licenses.
Electricity Regulation Act 2006 - An act to establish a national regulatory framework for the electricity supply industry; to make the National Energy Regulator NERSA the custodian and enforcer of the national electricity regulatory framework; to provide for licences and registration as the manner in which generation, transmission, distribution, trading and the import and export of electricity are regulated.
Tanzania Electricity Act 2008 - An act to provide for the facilitation and regulation of generation, transmission, transformation, distribution, supply and use of electric energy, to provide for cross-border trade in electricity and the planning and regulation of rural electrification and to provide for related matters. The section on regulation of rural electrification authorizes EWURA, the national electricity regulator to:
- Vary the nature of its regulation depending on the characterics of the entity performing the electrification;
- Delegate regulatory responsibilities to other entities.
Electricity Act 1999 - An act to provide for the establishment of the Electricity Regulatory Authority; to provide for its functions, powers and administration; to provide for the generation, transmission, distribution, sale and use of electricity; to provide for the licensing and control of activities in the electricity sector; to provide for plant and equipment and for matters relating to safety; to liberalize and introduce competition in the electricity sector; to repeal the Electricity Act, Cap 135 and the Uganda Electricity Board (Special provisions) Act, Cap. 136; to provide for a successor Company to the Uganda Electricity Board, and for connected purposes. The Electricity Regulatory Authority Web site includes links to licenses and application forms as well as regulations and standards and a Uganda proforma power purchase agreement (PDF).
See also Uganda's PPP Act in relation to the power sector.
Energy Regulation Act 1995 (PDF) - An act to establish an Energy Regulation Board and to define its functions and powers; to provide for the licensing of undertakings for the production of energy or the production or handling of certain fuels; to repeal the National Energy Council Act and the Zambia Electricity Supply Act. The Energy Regulation Board of Zambia Web site has links to a number of standards, including a Grid Code. Other Energy Legislations.
Regulation in Practice - Evaluation of Regulatory Systems
Regulatory systems often do not operate as planned because frequently there is a big gap between what is written in the law and what is implemented in practice. In situations where the regulatory system is not operating well, the World Bank often recommends independent and public evaluations of the system.
Such evaluations have now been performed several countries or regions (Mongolia, Brazil, the Eastern Caribbean and India). A roadmap for performing such evaluations can be found in the World Bank/ PPIAF Handbook For Evaluating Infrastructure Regulatory Systems (pdf)
Evaluation of ANEEL, the Brazilian electricity regulator
Evaluation of the Jamaican regulatory system
Small Grid and Off-Grid Connected Renewable Generators
Please find below some useful documents and links:
- IREC Guide For Connecting Small Distributed Generators To The Main Grid - IREC is at North Carolina State University. For more, please visit IREC.
- IREC Model Interconnection Standards and Procedures for Small Generator Facilities (pdf)
- Small Power Producers Documents
- Mini-Grids: Standardized Tariff Methodology for sale of Electricity to the Mini-Grids under the standardized ppa for small power producers (2009)
- Main Grid: Standardized Tariff Methodology for sale of Electricity to the Main Grid under standardized ppa for small power producers (2009)
- Standardized Small Power Purchase Agreements:
- Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) - Example 5 short-form power purchase agreement developed for small scale power projects in Namibia- Standard short-form power purchase agreement developed for small scale power projects in Namibia. This is part of a suite of documents including a fuel supply agreement that can be found on Web site of Namibia Electricity Control Board.
- Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) -pdf - Power purchase agreement developed for medium scale wind power projects in Namibia.
Click on the links below to find legislation, regulations, regulatory decisions for each of the following countries:
- Australia - Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
- India - Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC)
- India - Guajarat Electricity Regulatory Commission (GERC) (English and Guajarati)
- Pakistan - National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA)
- Singapore - Energy Market Authority
- Spain - Comision Nacional de Energia (English and Spanish)
- UK - Office of Regulation of Electricity and Gas
- US Federal Electricity Regulatory Commission (FERC)