United Kingdom Framework Agreement (Broadband Network)

Under the Framework, the UK Government subsidizes private sector investment to provide broadband to areas where there is otherwise not a viable commercial market. It uses a gap-fund subsidy commercial model, where Government funding subsidizes capital costs, but the supplier bears the risk of implementing, owning and operating the network and therefore the risk of ensuring its commercial success. It is expected that customer revenue will cover operating and maintenance costs, as well as generate sufficient profit to provide a return on the investment.

Implementation Agreement (Example 5)

In Australia, PPPs for conventional generation projects are less common as they are often privately financed.  Rather, PPPs are more likely to be used for infrastructure projects of systemic importance (such as provisions of system stability services).  The agreement provides a good illustration of a “light government touch” PPP project where the government assumes relatively little project (including regulatory) risk, which is reflective of Australia’s more market based energy sector:

Australia Generator Connection Agreement

Generator Connection Agreement published by Transgrid (a transmission service provider in New South Wales, Australia) on its website. The agreement sets out the terms on which Transgrid provides transmission services to generator customers (including renewable power generators) on its transmission network. The electricity transmission and distribution networks in Australia are owned and operated by private players, who provide services on their networks under negotiated private contracts.

Annotated Solar Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) prepared by Sustainable Power Group (sPower)

Publication Year
Power purchase agreement developed by sPower, an independent power producer, for the construction, operation and maintenance of a solar powered electric generating project, and sale of the electric energy produced by the project.