Empresas Mixtas

A form of PPP used extensively in civil law countries, particularly in the water sector is the "empresas mixtas" (mixed ownership enterprise).

This is a form of Joint Venture and the same issues raised in respect of Joint Ventures are relevant here.

For a general discussion of empresas mixtas see  Mixed Private-Public Ownership Companies “Empresa Mixta" (2011)  This review of the empresa mixta model was undertaken to better understand its structure, applicability and strength in mitigating risks in the water and sanitation sector. The last two decades have provided many lessons on empresas mixtas, particularly in Latin America.

Examples Legal Frameworks for / Examples of Empresas Mixtas

Below are examples of legal frameworks for “empresas mixtas” in several countries in Latin America. These laws cover water, energy, transportation, clean technology and telecommunications. This list also includes additional information, such as studies and analysis of the general legal framework.



  • Legal Framework:
    Brazilian Constitution: "Sociedades de Economia Mista" financial fiscalization articles 70, and 71, II, creation by law article 37, XIX, legal framework article 173, § 1º, creation of subsidiary enterprise article 37, XX, infrastructure and provision service concessions article 22, XXVII,
    Decreto-lei 200/67
    Lei 6.404/76
  • Water and Sanitation Enterprises information:
    Official Diary: This link contains administrative acts related to the provision of water services such as summaries of water and sanitation contracts


Costa Rica

  • Legal Framework:
    Costa Rica does not have specific legal Framework related to "Empresas Mixtas". However, they havelaws that authorize this kind of regime for specific enterprises such as: Líneas Aéreas Costarricenses, Refinadora Costarricense de Petróleos y Radiográfica Nacional. Costa Rica does not have a "Empresas Mixtas" regime for water and sanitation sector.

El Salvador

  • Legal Framework:
    Decree 2336/57 Ley sobre constitución de sociedades por acciones de economía mixta




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Updated: November 20, 2020