A growing body of evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs can have strong, positive effects on a range of welfare indicators for poor households in developing countries. However, the contribution of individual program components toward achieving these outcomes is not well understood.
Liquefied Natural Gas for Emerging Markets
Author: Gordon Shearer (Poten & Partners), David Nissen (Poten & Partners), and Alan Townsend (Infrastructure Department, The World Bank)
• 69 PPP transactions reached financial close for an aggregate value of EUR 12 billion
• In number terms, the market increased by 41% compared to 2015
• In value terms, the market decreased by 22% compared to 2015
• The most active market was the UK (by value and number of projects)
• 10 countries closed at least one PPP project
• Transport was the largest sector in value terms, whilst the education sector recorded the highest number of projects
• Over 80% of the transactions closed were government-pay PPPs
The 2018 report is the second substantive assessment of progress in implementing the Financing for Development outcomes and the means of implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
The statistical recording of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the statistics of EU Member States is carried out according to the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010). More specific interpretations of these rules, often referred to as the ‘Eurostat rules’, are provided by Eurostat (EU statistical authority).
Groom, Eric, Jonathan Halpern, and David Ehrhardt. 2006. “Explanatory Notes on Key Topics in the Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services.” Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board Discussion Paper 6. Washington, DC: World Bank. [#2078]
Yescombe, E.R. 2007. Public-Private Partnerships: Principles of Policy and Finance. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. [#2258]
This report provides a general overview of the projects that received financing from institutional investors and the share of institutional-investor contributions in the total investment garnered during the period of study. The report finds this share to be extremely low and as such the risks and barriers to institutional investment in infrastructure are also highlighted.