PPP Arrangements / Types of Public-Private Partnership Agreements
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can take a wide range of forms varying in the degree of involvement of the private entity in traditionally public infrastructure. A PPP is generally memorialized in a contract or agreement to outline the responsibilities of each party and clearly allocate risk. The graph below depicts the spectrum of PPP agreements.
For a summary of each type of arrangement and sample agreements, see:
You can also access checklists for agreements/sectors and sample clauses below:
Note: Although the key features of each category are summarized, there is overlap between the categories and the name given to a particular agreement may not reflect this classic categorization. Care should also be taken to identify whether a specific classification is enshrined in the laws of the host country, as in the case of many civil law jurisdictions where there are strict definitions of "concessions" and "affermages". The sample agreements included in this section are not the full range of agreements associated with infrastructure projects. They represent agreements commonly found in Bank-financed projects. These agreements are NOT intended to be used as "models". Legal advice should be sought in the preparation and drafting of an agreement to ensure that it is appropriate and workable in the circumstances of a particular project, sector and country. For Terms and Conditions of this website, go to About PPPIRC.
For a discussion of the various forms of PPP arrangements, go to:
- Guidelines for Successful Public-Private Partnerships, European Commission, March 2003 (pdf) - These guidelines are designed as a practical tool for PPP practitioners in the public sector faced with the opportunity of structuring a PPP scheme and of integrating grant financing.
- Resource Book on PPP Studies. European Commission, June 2004 (pdf)
- Understanding Options for Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure: Sorting out the forest from the trees: BOT, DBFO, DCMF, concession, leases, J.Delmon, 2010 (pdf). This paper provides a methodology for categorizing public-private partnerships in infrastructure.
- EI Source Book - This online resources provides useful links regarding extractive industries: Different type of licenses, operating permits and contract types, concession agreements, production-sharing agreements, etc., can be found at EI Source Book.