Renewable energy originates from resources that are replenished such as sunlight, wind and water flows (i.e., rain, tides, and waves), geothermal heat, biomass or biofuel. Recognition of the benefits of finding alternatives to fossil fuels has lead to an increase in projects involving renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE/EE).
The World Bank Group is engaged in active support for the Sustainable Energy for Fall (SEFA) initiative;launched by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in September 2011 which calls on governments, businesses and civil society to achieve three objectives by 2030. As nations adapt energy policies and laws to encourage use of renewable energy sources, they are looking to different financing, legal and commercial frameworks including PPP projects to leverage private capital and expertise and to support the deployment of RE/EE projects.
The section includes links to general RE/EE laws and policies from countries around the world, and sample laws, contracts and legal materials categorized by renewable energy resource and further reading materials:
- Renewable Energy Laws and Regulations: General
- Renewable Energy Sample Contracts: General
- Renewable Energy Projects by Resource
- Solar Power
- Wind Power
- Biomass and Biofuel
- Further Reading and Resources
This report from the Environmental Law Institute presents China's energy regulatory system and framework.
Funded by USAID, this website tracks the latest developments of 29 countries located throughout Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union and serves as an information resource to project developers, policymakers and researchers.
- European Union
This document is a compilation of the EU legislation with active links to directives and regulations regarding the energy sector in general (oil, gas, electricity, nuclear) with a number of specific directives on Renewable Energy (item 31 - 33); Energy Efficiency (34-44) and Eco-Design of Energy Using Products (45-59).
- South Africa
This June 2010 report from Capetown University was produced for the United Nations Environment Programme Research Project “Enhancing information for renewable energy technology deployment in Brazil, China and South Africa.”
Alternative Energy Reference Regulatory Documents
September 23,2009 draft submitted to Special Commission of Brazilian Congress by Workers’ Party Congressman Fernando Ferro of the State of Pernambuco redacting Bill 603 of 2003 - provides incentives to the generation of energy through alternative resources, renewables and bio-fuels; promotes research including with respect to: hybrid and electric cars, the storage of power and use of hydrogen and compressed gas; creates the National Fund for Alternative and Renewable Resources.
The Brazilian Energy Research Company published in 2010 the 10 Year National Energy Expansion Plan providing projections for energy demand and offer in a 10-year horizon and general energy guideline policies.
Authorizes ANEEL to organize alternative energy auctions on July 2011 and provides pre-qualification criteria for developers/investors interested in participating in the auction.
Provides information and updates on the Brazilian Energy Auctions organized by ANEEL, including information on pre-registration requirements and deadlines.Brazil PROINFA – Program for Incentive of Alternative Power Resources – Reference Documents
Law 10,438 of 2002 of April 26 2002 as amended by Laws 10,762/03 and Law 11,943 of March 28, 2009
Authorizes the creation of PROINFA – Program for Incentive of Alternative Power Resources.
Regulates the PROINFA program establishing targets, deadlines and requirements.
Provides that income from carbon trading arising out of PROINFA projects are to be used to offset costs of the PROINFA program and regulates the criteria for trading carbon credits arising out of PROINFA projects.
Authorizes Eletrobras to issue calls for proposal under PROINFA and establishes criteria for pre-qualification to be reflected in calls for proposal.
Establishes the criteria and instructions for calculation of the minimum national content of equipment and services required under the PROINFA program
Power point presentation dated January 2009 prepared by the Alternative Energy Resources Department of the Secretary of Planning and Energy Development of the Minister of Mines and Energy -- provides comprehensive data, graphs and maps on PROINFA results, costs, challenges and opportunities, and also reference to PROINFA’s legal and regulatory framework and financing mechanism.
Key Links and Resources
- ANEEL – Regulatory Agency
Renewable Energy Sample Contracts: General
Sample Contracts published by the Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE)
RCREEE is an independent non-profit regional organization which aims to enable and increase the adoption of renewable energy and energy efficiency practices in the Arab region. RCREEE teams with regional governments and global organizations to initiate and lead clean energy policy dialogues, strategies, technologies and capacity development in order to increase Arab states’ share of tomorrow’s energy.
Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Model for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy in RCREEE Member States, RCREEE January 2012. PPA to be entered into by a Seller and a Purchaser of energy. The Seller undertakes to construct, own, operate and maintain a renewable energy generating facility, and the Purchaser undertakes to buy the energy output generated by Facility.
User’s Guide for The Power Purchase Agreement Model for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Facilities, by Adel Beshara, RCREEE March 2012. The User's Guide provides more detailed information on specific provisions in the Power Purchase Agreement Model for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy in RCREEE Member States (such as term, pre-commercial operation obligations, commercial operation, sale and purchase of energy output, metering, defaults and termination). Additionally, it provides guidance on the development of Renewable Energy Power Purchase Agreements (“REPAs” or “RE-PPAs”).
Land Use Agreement (LUA) Model for Renewable Energy Electricity Generating Facilities in RCREE Member States, RCREEE, January 2012. LUA of public owned lands to be used for Renewable Energy (RE) projects. Agreement between the Land Owner (a public entity) and a Land User (a company investing in project development in the field of renewables) for a term of 23 years (pided into three phases: installation, operation and removal of renewable energy improvements).
User's Guide for Renewable Energy Electricty Generating Facilities' Land Use Agreement (LUA) Model by Adel Beshara, RCREEE March 2012. This Guide focuses on the long-term land use phase for the installation and operation of a renewable energy project. It discusses topics that are common to any lease and provides additional explanation of some clauses that can have different alternatives commonly used in the industry or proposed by the author (e.g., provisions on fee payments, removal and site restoration). It also covers the phase preceding the long-term land use phase, the option phase, and provides guidance with regard to Option Agreements for Site Evaulation including thoughts on how to avoid land speculation and profiteering as well as information on Easements.
South Africa's Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Program: Success Factors and Lessons by Anton Eberhard, Joel Kolker and James Leigland, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2014.
Revisiting Public-Private Partnerships in the Power Sector by Maria Vagliasindi, World Bank 2013.
- Power PPPs, Handshake, International Finance Corporation's (IFC's) quartely journal on public-private partnerships, Issue # 13, October 2012.
REPRC, an initaitive of the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), is a Wiki-based living repository of energy project guidance resources. Includes sample terms of references, procurement documents, economic analyses and case studies (success factors and lessons learned).
- SREEN – Special Report Renewable Energy Sources - "IPPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" – This summary of the current status and projections for Renewable Energy for Policy Makers was formally approved on the 11th session of Working Group II of the IPCC Abu Dhabi United Emirates 5-8 May 2011.
- "The Future Energy Matrix and Renewable Energy – Implications for Energy and Food Security." United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Multi Year Expert Meeting on Commodities and Development. Second Session Geneva (24-25 March 2010).
Abstract: Global energy demand has continued to increase, with major developing countries acting as the main driving force behind such increases. However, the world energy balance is dominated by fossil fuels. One major issue raised by this is how to change the future energy matrix towards more sustainable and renewable sources of energy. This background note reviews the state and prospects of the future energy matrix and, in particular, the potential role of renewable energy sources. It also examines the issue of biofuel production from the perspective of its implications for both energy and food security. It emphasizes the importance of adopting an integrated approach to energy security within the framework of which trade-offs are carefully evaluated against the background of national and global economic development challenges.
- Progressive policy-making has the greatest impact on our renewable energy future. GENI gathered what they believe to be the most effective government policies around the world to promote renewable energy technologies
- For basic information on renewable energy resources and technologies, the United States Department of Energy provides a good description of biomass, geothermal, hydrogen, ocean, solar and wind power resources (2011).